Volume 5, Number 10 (2010)
A publication of the Faculty of Communication & Media Studies and the University Research Institute of Applied Communication National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
20 YEARS AFTER OF THE GREEK PRIVATE TELEVISION
(1989-2009): AN ACCOUNT
The deregulation of television and the entry of private TV stations in the greek audiovisual landscape was a crucial change of political and social institutions in the modern greek history. The structure and functioning of television has changed profoundly and at the same time caused considerable changes in the communication sector, either electronic or printed. It was the impetus of the TV medium which also led the social and political institutions to adjust themselves within the new media environment. Publicity and visibility became core factors for the formation of the public sphere and contributed to the building of new values and mentality. The state was not prepared to face such deep changes and hesitated to create the necessary institutional framework. Therefore, a rather unregulated and haphazardly imposed field of entrepreneurial activities was formed, which has remained largely unchangeable since then. Greece’s small and fragmented market cannot support the existing number of TV outlets, and the TV companies have faced considerable financial problems. The advent of digital television in conjuncture with the economic crisis is expected to rationalize and reorganize the television landscape.
THE FOGGY DIGITAL LANDSCAPE OF GREECE
The development of digital television in Greece is in its early stages. In effect, there is no digital cable TV, while the public broadcaster, ERT, has since the first quarter of 2006 started digital terrestrial transmissions. On the contrary, digital satellite television has presented some development, but this is due to the only pay TV operator in Greece, Nova, after a wounded digital war with an early competitor, Alpha Digital. However, total pay TV penetration, both analogue and digital, is less than 12 per cent of TV households, one of the lowest pay TV penetration rates in Europe. Only very recently the private broadcasters formed an alliance, Digea, to start digital emissions. This paper tries to discuss the development of digital television in Greece. It will trace the players, the economics and the politics associated with this new television medium, and it will argue that the domestic market, due to its size and peculiarities, is difficult to create the needed economies of scale of the development of digital television.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL RADIO IN GREECE
Radio history in Greece has been associated with the private initiative. “Radio Tsigiridis” was the first ever in Greece and in the Balkans, and Christos Tsigiridis in 1928 was the first owner of a private radio station in the region. 1987 was a decisive year for the future of radio in Greece, as municipal and private local stations started broadcasting contesting state monopoly. In the beginning, the “free” radio broadcasting, as it used to be called, was news and information orientated, and agenda setting was not any more monopolized by government news. Later on, music orientated stations dominated radio waves. “Infotainment” replaced news, and agenda setting changed the priorities from politics to “social orientated” issues.
THE DECLINE OF THE GREEK PRESS SINCE 1989:
TRANFORMATIONS, CHANGES AND CRITICAL ADJUSTMENTS
Nicos Bakounakis, Stylianos Papathanassopoulos
Apart from vast increases in pages, supplements and offers, Athenian newspapers have been changing significantly in other ways that affect appearance and content. Today’s newspapers have little in common with to those of the last decade in terms of content or form. Nowadays, they present their content in a much more fashionable way (more features, more news, more photos, and more specialised pages), as well as in a convenient and manageable form. On the other hand, the public buys ever fewer newspapers. This paper tries to provide an account of the decline of the Athenian press, one of the most seriously hit media industries in Europe. It argues that the crisis of the greek Press is the result of a combination of factors and not only the deregulation of the broadcasting system.
THE GREEK FILM INDUSTRY: EVOLUTIONS,
TRENDS AND AUDIENCES
In this paper I intend to examine the countervailing tendencies of neo-liberal laissez-faire versus european protectionism operating in the greek film industry, assessing on the one hand the effects of globalization and on the other the efforts of EU to intervene and reverse USA’s domination of the audiovisual market. It is therefore pertinent to examine how these trends have affected both its structures and its audiences.
EN BLOGS: FROM THE WEB TO THE BLOGOSPHERE
This article attempts to examine what could be described as a “culture of blogs” (blog-culture). In particular, it presents four dimensions of the communication process and the subsequent analysis around the blogs: the creation of the blogosphere, the content of blogs, the consumption of content, and finally the influence that blogs exercise on the socio-cultural environment beyond the world of Internet. It describes the key questions raised in any part of this process and analyses the most important. More specifically, at the theoretical-methodological level the paper examines the blogs as a genre of the Internet, whether or not the existence of the blogosphere, the extent and factors that determine the anonymity of bloggers, the influence of the “old media” on blogs and their audience, the relationship between blogosphere and the public sphere, etc.
ONLINE MEDIA AND WEB 2.0: THE GREEK CASE
Paschalia Spyridou, Andreas Veglis
The development of online media towards the direction of “participation” and a “richer communication experience” insinuated by the term “Web 2.0” is an inevitable and constant process, sometimes more and others less successful. The present paper contains the results of a content analysis research investigating the number and type of technological tools and services used by the greek Media. The findings demonstrate significant insufficiencies regarding the potential evolution of the greek websites, yet the landscape can be divided into websites of three different genres.
COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF THE EMOTIONAL
AGENDA OF TELEVISION NEWS
Betina Davou, Antonis Armenakis, Anna Vasilaki, Eleni Karagiorgi, Dora Limoura,
Aggeliki Papaiakovou, Marianna Poutakidou, Stella Tsagkaraki
Current experimental results have shown the fine but significant interaction between the emotional tone and cognitive processing of television news. These findings confirm that the cognitive processing of news depends not only upon information content, but to a great extend, as well, on the emotions raised to viewers. Dramatization of news defines the emotional framing within which news are interpreted cognitively. Thus, processes such as attention or mnemonic retention of news depend on whether news cause fear, anger, disgust, and other emotions. In the present research, the “emotional agenda” of main evening news in two greek television channels was studied for a period of one month. A total of 842 news reports, 471 from NET (a public channel) and 371 from MEGA (a private channel), were monitored with respect to emotions caused to viewers. The two channels differ by the number of news reports presented, the nature and frequency of emotions they raise to their viewers, as well as by the opening emotion of the news program. However, both channels present for significantly more time news which mainly cause anger and disgust, and for less time news which cause joy. These particular results are interpreted according to their cognitive and social consequences.
THE ROLE OF MUSIC AND POLITICS
IN THE PIRATE RADIO OF THESSALONIKI
This paper examines the structure and content of the program of the pirate stations in the city of Thessaloniki. The research focuses especially on the role that music has played in the radio program and the relation between music and politics that evolves consciously or unconsciously inside it. Taken into consideration the crucial role of radio pirates in the above mentioned questions, the research uses the method of qualitative interview with radio pirates in the city of Thessaloniki and analyses qualitatively the results of the interviews.