Volume 3, Number 6 (2007)
A publication of the Faculty of Communication & Media Studies and the University Research Institute of Applied Communication National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
DIGITAL MEDIA LITERACIES: RETHINKING MEDIA EDUCATION IN THE AGE OF THE INTERNET
Institute of Education, London University;
Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media, UK .
This article considers the ways in which media educators can respond to the new challenges and opportunities of the internet, and of digital media more broadly. It begins by exploring the value and limitations of the notion of ‘literacy' in this context, and the tensions between ‘competence-based' and more critical, sociological approaches. It then moves on to consider the nature of digital literacy, and how media education approaches might be applied specifically to the analysis of the World Wide Web. Finally, it considers the potential of digital media production in the classroom, and how this relates to issues of access and of pedagogy.
THE CHALLENGES OF EDO-COMMUNICATION IN AN AUDIOVISUAL SOCIETY
Jose Ignacio Aguaded-Gόmez
University of Huelva, Spain
With the onset of the new millennium we all have come to recognize that we live in a complex society. The paradox is that the more communication is widely consumed, the more we feel and experience a deep communication crisis, because the audiovisual dimension sets off a new culture of images where appearance, diversity and the spectacular dominate. This audiovisual panorama necessitates a new educational context in which media education becomes a key issue for the understanding of the new communication languages. Thus, it arises as a requirement that all citizens develop “audiovisual competence”, that is a basic structure of those abilities and attitudes necessary to face our relationship with the media with clever, rational and beneficial ways.
MEDIA LITERACY IN GREECE AND OTHER COUNTRIES
Faculty of Communication and Media Studies, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
This article presents a brief review of the evolution of the terms media education or medial literacy with the purpose to contribute to the recent discussions among members of the scientific community about the definition and the application of relevant programs. It also presents the basic features of media education programs in Greece and other countries, as well as their philosophy, their influences, their relationship to the educational curricula of each country, and the institutions through which the programs are materialized. An important conclusion deriving from this discussion is that there is an imperative need to develop in our country both research and applications related to media education programs, even at the preschool level, if we wish to keep at pace with developments in the rest of the western world.
INTEGRATING MEDIA LITERACY INTO HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION
School of Communications and Theater, Temple University , USA
Concord High School is one of the first school districts in the United States to integrate media literacy extensively into the secondary curriculum, reaching students aged 15 – 17. This article examines their comprehensive approach to incorporating media literacy in English language arts through interviews with seven high school teachers who collaborated on the development of the curriculum. Readers get a close look at some of the books, films and classroom activities which were used. Instructional activities are described and situated in a theoretical context based on scholarship in media studies, cultural studies and education. The outcomes of this instruction on students' writing, reading, listening, and viewing skills in responding to TV news, advertising and print media are then presented. Based on the experience of teachers at Concord High School , a process model for how teachers can begin to develop media literacy curricula to help students critically analyze media texts, tools and technologies is described.
THE MEDIA EDUCATOR: PROFILE, ABILITIES, TRAINING. A TRAINING MODEL FOR COMMUNICATION SPECIALISTS
Pier Cesare Rivoltella
University Cattolica di Milano , Italy
This paper offers some ideas about the professional training of media educators on the basis of recent international scientific perspectives. It presents various possible connections at a professional level and defines the necessary skills, while at the same time discusses the issue of whether media education should be seen as a new profession integrated to other educational professions (teacher, trainer, educator) or whether we should consider these skills as a necessary component of the education of any person who functions within the context of the information society. Whatever is the case, the manifold and structured system of the skills necessary for the work of a media educator entails the development of methodologically valid specific actions for the purpose of training. The article presents the experience from the application of a Specialization Program in Media Education at the Catholic University of Milan, since 1998. Experience from this program has offered ideas that could be generalized and used in different cultural and educational contexts.
FROM SPECTATORS TO PRODUCERS: MEDIA LITERACY AND AUDIOVISUAL PRODUCTION
Evangelia Kourti and Maria Leonida
Faculty of Early Childhood Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Τhis article examines issues concerned with the production of audiovisual products within the framework of media literacy. The starting point was an audiovisual workshop addressed to students of the Preschool Education Department, in the University of Crete . Here we present the method used in planning the workshop as well as the process of familiarization, implementation and analysis of audiovisual products. Main aims of the workshop were: to develop critical analytic skills, as well as an understanding of and active participation in the culture of media, through production of audiovisual products, which the students could use in communication and self-expression or as a teaching tool. The positive response to the workshop, the quality of the videos produced (six videos of 1-3 minutes duration), as well as the students' self evaluation reports strengthen our belief that audiovisual production is a crucial and central element in audiovisual education. In parallel, it is worth mentioning the students' developmental process from “spectators to producers”, which demonstrates that the students' prior experiences with media may be used both in producing audiovisual products, as well as in education as a whole.
TO BE BOTH GREEK AND SWEDISH IN A GLOBAL MEDIATED WORLD: YOUNG PEOPLE'S USE OF MEDIA IN GREECE
School of Social and Health Sciences, Halmstad University , Sweden
In immigration-related research the expression ‘being between two worlds' is frequently used in trying to describe the living circumstances of young people with immigrant backgrounds. The article draws its attention to how it is to be both Swedish and Greek growing up in Greece . As children in such families have transcended national, social and cultural borders in various ways, they might give us some insight into what it might be like living in what is often labelled a global society. The aim is to gain an understanding of the media usage among Greek/Swedish young people, in the ages 12-16, and the meanings they attach to different media in their daily life in Greece . This is obtained by examining more specifically issues such as young people's talk about being Swedish and Greek, their popular media usage and their use of Swedish media to, for example, keep oneself informed about the Swedish society and finally how Greek media output is valued in comparison with Swedish media output. The empirical data of the article are based on in-depth interviews with children in their bedrooms. Before the interviews, disposable cameras were also sent to the young informants, who were asked to photograph things, persons and places that are important to them in daily life.
THE REPRESENTATION OF GREEK EDUCATION IN THE MEDIA
Faculty of Communication and Media Studies, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
The representation of education in mass media content especially in television is a significant issue in Media Education theory because of two reasons. First such a representation can influence the way teachers and students understand their social role. Second because such ‘reading” can be a model for understanding of other social roles. In Media Education theory there exist three main approaches: a) the critical – determinist, b) the pragmatist and c) the critical – cultural. Using the last approach in an empirical research, it was found that TV news describe education in ways that differ from what education is in the real world, and as less important that it is accepted by the political and academic discourse. The findings show that: a) there is a limited number of news pieces about education, b) they focus mainly on secondary education and on public versus private education, c) they also focus on (mostly negative) social behaviors and on organizational issues, d) the news pieces show mainly facts rather than educational policy issues and e) they are highly dramatized.